If any organization has reached the sterling juncture in the field of space technology in the last few decades, then it certainly is ISRO. Indian Space Research Organisation, the well-versed Indian space agency, founded in 1969 to develop an independent Indian program. Its headquarters are in Bangalore (Bengaluru). ISRO’s chief executive may be a chairman, who is additionally chairman of the Indian government’s Space Commission and therefore the secretary of the Department of Space.
The Indian Space Research Organisation operates through a distinctive state network of centres. The Sensors and payloads are developed at the Space Applications Centre in the vibrant city of Ahmedabad. Satellites are further designed, developed, assembled, and also tested at the U R Rao Satellite Centre (which was formerly the ISRO Satellite Centre in the region of Bangalore. The Launch vehicles are also developed at the Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre in Thiruvananthapuram. Launches happen at the Satish Dhawan Space Centre on Sriharikota Island, near Chennai.
The Master Control Facilities for geostationary satellite station-keeping are located at the city of Hassan and the Bhopal. For the purpose of reception and the processing facilities for in the remote-sensing data that are at the National Remote Sensing Centre located in the vicinity of Hyderabad. ISRO’s commercial arm is in the form of Antrix Corporation, which has its headquarters in the state capital of Banglore.
ISRO’s first satellite, the Aryabhata, was launched by the former Soviet Union on April 19, 1975. Rohini, the primary satellite to be placed in the orbit by an Indian-made launch vehicle (the Satellite Launch Vehicle 3), which was apparently launched on July 18, 1980. ISRO has launched several space systems after this escapade, including the Indian National Satellite (INSAT) system for the purpose of telecommunication, the television broadcasting, meteorology, and disaster warning and therefore the Indian Remote Sensing (IRS) satellites for the resource monitoring and management.
The primary INSAT was launched in 1988, and therefore the program expanded to incorporate geosynchronous satellites called GSAT. The primary IRS satellite was also launched in 1988, and therefore the program was developed in more-specialized satellites. It also includes the Radar Imaging Satellite-1 (RISAT-1, launched in 2012) and therefore the Satellite with Argos and Altika (SARAL, launched in 2013), a joint Indian-French mission that measures ocean wave heights. ISRO subsequently developed three other rockets: the Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV) for putting satellites into polar orbit, the Geostationary Space Launch Vehicle (GSLV) for putting satellites into geosynchronous orbit, and a heavy-lift version of the GSLV called the GSLV Mark III or LVM. Those rockets launched communications satellites and Earth-observation satellites also as missions to the Moon (Chandrayaan-1, 2008; Chandrayaan-2, 2019) and Mars (Mars Orbiter Mission, 2013). ISRO plans to place astronauts into orbit in 2021.
Objectives of ISRO
Directed towards, independent use of space technology for national development with the most thrust on
Mass communication and education via satellite.
Carrying out Survey and the management of natural resources through the remote sensing technology, in the environmental monitoring and also includes the meteorological forecasting.
Development of the indigenous satellites and also all about the satellite launch vehicles.
Other Space Research Organizations
1.) Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre (VSSC):
VSSC at Thiruvananthapuram is that the head centre for the event of satellite launch vehicles and associated technology.
2.) ISRO Satellite Centre (ISAC):
ISAC at Bangalore is that the lead centre for developing satellite technology and implementation of satellite system for scientific, technological and applications missions.
3.) Satish Dhawan Space Centre (SDSC) SHAR:
SDSC SHAR is that the main launch centre of ISRO and has facilities for solid propellant casting, static testing of solid motors, launch vehicles integration and launch operations, range operation comprising telemetry tracking and command network and mission control centre.
4.) Liquid Propulsion Systems Centre (LPSC):
LPSC is the lead centre in the development of liquid and cryogenic propulsion for launch vehicles and satellites.
5.) Space Applications Centre (SAC):
SAC at Ahmadabad is engaged within the development of payloads for communication, meteorological and remote sensing satellites.
6.) Development and Educational Communication Unit (DECU):
DECU at Ahmadabad is involved within the conception, definition, planning, implementation and socio: economic evaluation of innovative configuration for space applications.
7.) ISRO Telemetry, Tracking and Command: Network (ISTRAC):
ISTRAC provides mission support to low: earth orbit satellites also as launch vehicle missions.
8.) Master Control Facility:
MCF at Hassan in Karnataka and Bhopal in Madhya Pradesh monitors and controls all the geo: stationary satellites of ISRO.
9.) ISRO inertial system Unit (IISU):
IISU at Thiruvanathpuram carries out resource and development in inertial sensors and systems.
10.) National Remote Sensing Centre (NRSC):
NRSA at Hyderabad is an autonomous institution under DOS. The agency is liable for satellite data acquisition and processing data dissemination, aerial remote sensing and decision support for disaster management.
11.) Physical Research Laboratory (PRL):
PRL at Ahmadabad, is an autonomous institution supported mainly by DOS. It’s a premier institute for multi: disciplinary research in astronomy and astrophysics, earth sciences, planetary sciences, space sciences and basic science.
12.) National Atmospheric Research Laboratory (NARL):
NARL at Gadanki near Tirupati is an autonomous society supported by DOS. It’s a premier centre for atmospheric research facilities like Mesosphere, Stratosphere troposphere radar, LIDAR etc.
13.) Regional Remote Sensing Service Centres – (PRSSC) –
Five PRSSCs are established by the DOS at Bangalore, Jodhpur, Kharagpur, Dehradun and Nagpur. PRSSCs support the varied remote sensing tasks specific to their regions also as at the national level.
14.) North Eastern – Space Application Centre (NESAC):
NE-SAC, located at Shillong, maybe a joint initiative of DOS and North Eastern Council to supply development support to the North-Eastern region using space science and technology.
15.) Antrix Corporation Limited –
The Antrix Corporation Limited, Bangalore is that the apex marketing agency under DOS with access to resources of DOS also as Indian space industries.
16.) Semi: Conductor Laboratory (SCL):
SCL is entrusted with design and development of very large scale integration (VLSI) devices and development of systems for telecommunications and space sectors.